Faith & Social Justice: In the spirit of Richard Overton and the 17th C. Levellers

Should Christians Join Political Parties?

Since the election of Ronald Reagan in 1980, a large segment of American Christianity, especially of those self-identifying as “conservative evangelicals,” has been firmly wedded to the Republican Party, to the point where the joke is now common that the Republican nickname of G.O.P. stands for “God’s Own Party,” instead of “Grand Old Party.” Now, Jim Evans at EthicsDaily.com thinks that Jim Wallis of Sojourners and R. Michael Lerner of the Network of Spiritual Progressives are simply a mirror image of partisanship, hitching the wagon of faith to the fortunes of a political party. I am not sure that is an accurate portrayal of the intentions of either Wallis or Lerner, but that is a subject for another day. Instead, I want to ask, Should Christians even join political parties?

Some parts of the Anabaptist tradition, after being persecuted and run out of several countries, took their longstanding belief in separation from “the world,” and of church/state separation, and turned it into an apolitical quietism–an ethic of “withdrawal from the world.” Other Christian traditions have also had such “quietist” strands. It is one way that the powerful writings of contemporary theologian Stanley Hauerwas are read. And, as an alternative to the idolatries of nationalism or of placing loyalty to a party or political ideology above loyalty to the Rule of God, such quietism has an undeniable appeal.

Others recognize a legitimate role for Christians to play in a democratic process (e.g., voting), but argue that all Christians should be independents since the gospel hardly lines up with the platform of any political party. But I don’t have any problem with voting or even with joining political parties, as long as we remember the argument that Dietrich Bonhoeffer made in his unfinished Ethik between “ultimate” and “penultimate” goods. Our ultimate loyalty is to the ultimate good, the Rule of God through Jesus Christ (which Bonhoeffer phrased in good Pauline/Lutheran fashion as justification by grace). But there are also penultimate goods: non-corrupt government, the absence of poverty, stable family life, just laws applied fairly, etc. The church as the People of God can and has survived without these penultimate goods. We do not need, for instance, liberal democracies to be the People of God. (Cf. Karl Barth, How to Serve God in a Marxist Land.)

But those penultimate goods are real goods and liberal democracy is, all things considered, better than alternatives. So, go ahead, check out party platforms, see which comes closest to the values of God as you understand them and join up. But, there are cautions. 1) Neither the nation, nor the party, nor the party ideology is God. No Christian should be a “true blue” party member. If the party is wrong, you must be the internal critic, even willing to side with a rival party if they are in the right and your party in the wrong. 2) Other believers will read things differently. They will either interpret gospel priorities differently or weight party platform planks differently, etc. Don’t show contempt for their faith because you disagree with their party affiliation or voting choices. You both have higher loyalties–or should. 3)In bringing your faith-inspired values to the political realm, be sure to have respect for others’ religious liberty and for church/state separation. Do nothing to make people of other faiths or no faith into second class citizens. The wheat and the tares must grow together until the harvest of the last day. (Matt. 13:24-30) 4)There is no religious test for political office in the U.S. Martin Luther once said he would rather be ruled by a “wise Turk,” (i.e. a Muslim) than a foolish Christian and John Wesley noted that if he were drowning, he would rather be noticed by a burglar who could swim than a bishop afraid of water! Vote for the candidate or party whose policies seem wisest, not for someone just because they are loud about their personal faith.

I am a registered Democrat, although my values are closer to the Green Party so that, if we can achieve the electoral reforms necessary for 3rd parties to be a help rather than hindrance in the U.S. system, I may change parties–unless the Democrats change. But I am often critical of my Party and its leaders. During the Clinton years, I was very critical of him–just usually from a different perspective than conservative Republican critics. And there are Republicans I have admired such as Eisenhower, Harold Stassen (primary author of the UN Charter), Mark Hatfield (for whom I would probably have voted if he had ever run for president), and others. As a strategist in movements for peace and human rights, I have never urged anyone to register Democrat (although I have urged Democrats to appeal more to peace folk). Instead, I want to create a strong peace and human rights presence in all major parties so that none can ignore us nor others tell us, “you have to vote for us because the others are worse.”

I want the Democratic Party to retake the Congressional majority this year, both houses if possible. I think this would be good for the nation. I want progressives to get more hearing from the Democratic leadership than the corporate shills of the “Democaratic Leadership Council.” And all of these goals are informed by my faith–but I am not infallible. My sisters and brothers in Christ who see things differently are not evil or pagan or damned for disagreeing with me. And my fellow citizens who are not Christian, whether they share my political views or oppose them, are not thereby “bad Americans.”

In the heat of vigorous debate, it is too easy to forget these things, and I am sometimes guilty.
So, this post is a reminder for me as well as others.

August 8, 2006 Posted by | Christianity, church-state separation, politics, religious liberty, U.S. politics | 10 Comments

I Am Pro-Israel, Therefore I Criticize Israel

Ira Chernus, a religious Jew and Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Colorado at Boulder, explains that he is a critic of Israel precisely because he believes in Israel and wants it to be secure and at peace.

I don’t say much about the immorality of Israeli actions. They are shockingly immoral. But talking about it won’t make much difference. So I appeal to naked self-interest. I point out the obvious: Every time a Palestinian or Lebanese is hit by an Israeli bomb or bullet, it spells more risk for the safety of Israel.

As a Christian, I can make similar claims to be both pro-Israel and pro-U.S. and thus to criticize both out of loyalty. And I understand Chernus’ argument for pragmatism. There are times and places not to mention that I am also pro-Palestinian or Pro-Lebanese, precisely in order to get a hearing for peacemaking.But I wonder. Rabbi Michael Lerner of Beyt Tikkun Synagogue in Berkeley, editor of Tikkun, and founding co-chair of the Network of Spiritual Progressives, has been pointing out for some time that Center-Left folk specialize in pragmatic language and the language of policy and that we keep losing elections and policy debates. Yes, appeal to enlightened self-interest, but appeals to such alone are striking the public as “spiritually lifeless.” Humans are more than rational, self-interested beings (this is the fatal flaw in both Communism and Laissez-faire captialism) and want to have people appeal to their moral side and their compassion. That is the value of bumper stickers like Torture is Unamerican. The historical record may show many times when America has tortured, but our publicly declared values have never before endorsed torture. So we appeal not only to pragmatic arguments (e.g., torture yields little trustworthy information, creates more people who hate us enough to launch terror attacks,places Americans abroad at greater risk, etc.) but to that part of people who want both to love their nation and to see it live up to its highest values.

So, with Israel. Yes, we need Prof. Chernus’ arguments that the best thing for Israel’s peace and security would be to end the Occupation of Palestine, withdraw from Lebanon, and make peace with its neighbors. We need to point out that the longer the war in Lebanon continues, the more pan-Arab support Hezbollah is receiving (even Lebanese Christians, who previously had no use for Hezbollah at all since Hezbollah’s ideology would remake the entire Arab world into an Islamic theocracy like Iran’s, are now admiring its “defense” of their neighborhoods against what is viewed as naked Israeli aggression), the more anti-Jewish and anti-Israeli sentiment is generated, and the more likely it is that Israel will be drawn into a nightmarish quagmire such as when it invaded Lebanon in 1982. But we also need the moral appeals: Secular Jewish Israelis need to be reminded that Israel is losing the high ideals with which it was founded in 1948 and fast becoming a police state. Religious Jews, both in Israel and the U.S., need to be reminded of Judaism’s insistence that all are made in God’s likeness and the Hebrew Bible’s insistence that strangers and aliens be treated as one would treat the Covenant People.

When people are threatened, physically or otherwise, moral appeals alone usually fall on deaf ears, but so do simple pragmatic appeals to enlightened self-interest because the case for violence, for war, for ignoring atrocities, can also appeal to pragmatism and fear gives that appeal the louder megaphone. Combining the pragmatic and moral appeals, however, has a chance to break through since it pulls people’s self-interest and their desire to live up to their ideals in the same direction.

If we are pro-Israel and wish her survival and security, we must call for a ceasefire. If we want Israel to be the kind of land dreamed of at its founding, we will also call for a ceasefire and more. If we are pro-American, we need to see that this war is not in our self-interest and we need to see that America is in danger of losing its soul. We must pray that similar combinations of pragmatism and moral appeal are being made in Lebanon, too.

A range of voices on these issues which escape most of the U.S. mainstream media, can be found here.

August 8, 2006 Posted by | Israel | Comments Off on I Am Pro-Israel, Therefore I Criticize Israel