Political Assassination: The Violent Enemy of Democracy
The U.S. likes to pride itself on its regular peaceful transfer of power every 4 or 8 years when a new president is elected. But our nation also has a long history of political violence. Whereas Canada, Australia, New Zealand and other former British colonies gained their independence through renegotiating their social contracts with the mother country (and India had a nonviolent revolution), the U.S. defended its declaration of independence by means of a war. And we began with two huge contradictions: a policy of genocide and assimilation toward the indigenous population (“First Americans” or “Indians”) and chattel slavery toward kidnapped Africans and their descendants–both policies of great structural violence. So, it is probably not surprising that political violence has had deep roots in U.S. history: Shays’ Rebellion, the Trail of Tears, waves of anti-immigrant violence (directed at different times at the Irish, Jews, Slavs and people from Southern Europe, Chinese, Japanese, Hispanics, Arabs, Muslims, etc.), the War with Mexico, the military theft of Hawai’i, the Philippines, and much else. The record is far too large to recap here.
But one example of the dark side of our history that we need to remember today is the history of political assassination in this country. Political assassination is an act of violence and of domination. It is inherently anti-democratic as it claims to know better than the people who elected someone (or were about to elect someone) who should lead the people–and a willingness to violently impose this “greater wisdom” on the populace. Democracy is more than elections, but clean, non-fraudulent elections (even in situations with limited choices) are a nonviolent, anti-authoritarian, anti-domination practice. The more thoroughly a given society is a participatory democracy, the more it rejects political violence in a very practical way (even if a person or party is elected whom no democrat and no peacemaker would celebrate). Process–practices–matter as much as individual results of elections.
I would argue that a series of political assassinations from my early childhood (Pres. John F. Kennedy in ’63; Malcolm X in ’65; Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Sen. Robert Kennedy in ’68) derailed progressive social movements and ushered in a political deep freeze for 40 years–a time which saw the nation repeatedly come close to proto-fascism. I say that not because any or all of these men were saints–each had his own set of major faults. But their violent deaths greatly damaged the country (and, because of U.S. power abroad, the world). In 2 cases (JFK and RFK), the assassinations deliberately negated the electoral will of the people.
The U.S. has lost four (4) presidents to assassination:
- Abraham Lincoln (1865)
- James A. Garfield (1881)
- William McKinley (1901)
- John F. Kennedy (1963).
But this is not the whole story, even restricting ourselves to U.S. presidents. The list of failed assassination attempts on sitting presidents is much longer.
- Andrew Jackson (1835)
- Abraham Lincoln (1861)
- Theodore Roosevelt (1912)
- Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–a month before his inauguration!)
- Harry S. Truman (1950)
- John F. Kennedy (1960, 1961, in addition to the successful assassination in 1963)
- Richard Nixon (1974)
- Gerald R. Ford (2 attempts in Sept. 1975)
- Jimmy Carter (1979)
- Ronald Reagan (1981)
- Bill Clinton (2 attempts in 1994)
- George W. Bush (Feb. 2001, Sept. 11, 2001, 2005)
There are also presidential candidates who have been assassinated such as Sen. Robert Kennedy (1968) or assassination was attempted (e.g., arch-segregationist Gov. George Wallace of Alabama), or threatened with assassination (e.g. Barack Obama). And some presidents died in mysterious circumstances that may have been assassinations such as:
- Zachary Taylor (1850–although exhumation and testing for arsenic in 1991 may have laid this rumor to rest)
- Warren G. Harding (1923–Mrs. Harding refused to allow an autopsy to determine cause of death).
Other major political assassinations and attempts in the U.S. include:
- Sec. of State William Seward (1865) who escaped an assassination attempt by a co-conspirator of Lincoln’s assassin.
- Anton Cermak, Mayor of Chicago (1933), killed in the assassination attempt on FDR’s life.
- Sen. Huey P. Long (D-LA) (1935)
- Gov. John Connally (D-TX) (1963), injured in the assassination of JFK.
- George Moscone, Mayor of San Francisco and Harvey Milk, Supervisor of San Francisco (1978). (Milk was the first openly gay man elected to office in the U.S. Sen. Diane Feinstein’s political career was launched in response to these assassinations, dramatized in the new film, Milk.)
- Vernon Jordon, civil rights activist (1980).
This is just a small sample of the way that political violence, especially assassination and attempted assassination, have distorted U.S. society and politics, replacing democratic action with authoritarian domination and violence. It doesn’t even count the long history of lynchings, either.
This background is a major reason I found the “terrorist” accusations made by John McCain and Sarah Palin about then-Sen. Barack Obama to be so dangerous. Such demagoguery could well have resulted in nutcases attempting to kill him out of a warped sense of patriotism. (Criticisms of policies are legitimate, hate-speech is not.)
Let us work to put an end to such political violence here and around the globe.
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